DA(M)N DaHN Dalet-Noon
ROOTS: Latin damnare is to condemn or fine. The theoretical (1985) IE “root” for DAMN, DAMAGE and CONDEMN is dap to apportion (in exchange).
דן DahN is to punish or "judge" (Genesis 15:14). דין DaYaN is a judge (Psalms 68:6 – see “DEAN”). דין DeeYN is law, judgment, justice, litigation and, in Deuteronomy 17:18, a legal plea, as in to DUN. טעם DT[A]hM is a judgment or decree (Jonah 3:7). DT-MN antonyms at "DUMB". DOOMSDAY is judgement day ( יום הדין YOAM HaDeeYN), but the “scholars” of historical linguistics who dismiss Semitic prefer to cite Old English dōm, judgement.
BRANCHES: DEEM is to judge; a DEEMSTER is archaic for a judge. (Also see “MENTAL” for DEEM). REDEEM and REDEMPTION (to make amends, atone for guilt); relate to other DM terms like DAMAGE, Latin damnum (lesser injury), INDEMNITY, and INDEMNIFY (to make reparations). All these relate to דם DahM ("bloodguilt" - Exodus 22:l).
To translate דם DahM as literal blood makes for awkward translation in verses like Leviticus 19:16 ("Do not profit by the blood of your neighbor"). The context clearly wants us to not profit by the damnum (Latin for injury or loss) of our fellow man. In many other verses the bloodthirsty translators failed to see דם DahM as a legal term of damages due, a relative of דמם DahMiM (value, cost), of דמי DiMaY (fee) and, of דין DeeYN (DOOM, judgment). Tet-Ayin-Noon/ טען DT[A]’aN is to sue or claim.
CONDEMN, DEMON, DOOM are all judgmental terms. Greek daimon, spirit, is more likely a damned, doomed spirit more than any visible תמונהTiMOONaH (picture) or דמות DiMOOT (image – a theory of author Eugene Narrett). Ghosts can be seen, they say, but a DEMONIC soul is for exorcists.
מדינה MiDeeYNaH (province) literally means jurisdiction. The city of MEDINA, near Mecca, Saudi Arabia was once a largely Jewish city before it was ethnically cleansed. As law implies jurisdiction or legal DOMINIAN, this D-N M family has a bearing on words like DEMEAN, DOMINATE, KINGDOM, etc.
The -DOM suffix of words like FREEDOM and SERFDOM are from the jurisdiction of DOOM and דין DeeYN (law). See "MADONNA" and "ADONIS" for many ד-ן D-N terms of mastery from אדוןADOAN (master).
In Chinese dian is law or rule; ding is to pass judgment. Tham is to try or judge in Vietnamese. Japanese handan is a judgment; handan suru is to judge.
In Finnish tuomari, judge; tuomio, a judgement (a doom); tuomita is to condemn, judge, sentence, adjudicate or doom.
In Norwegian (unlike German in this case) a judge is bedǾmme. He is DEEMING DOOM or CONDEMNING the guilty by דין DeeYN (law).
A legal jurisdiction, state or מדינה MeDeeYNaH authorizes the coin of the realm or legal tender.
D-N jurisdiction terms are stamped in money words, including Spanish dinero, Italian denaro and perhaps Russian dyengi деньги. The reference books try to make the Latin dinarius non-Semitic by insisting that the coin “originally contained ten asses” (Ernest D. Klein), believing that DNR sounds like Latin decem (ten).
A DEEMSTER (judge) did the DEEMING or ESTIMATING. ESTIMATE was traced to Latin aestimāre , but we now know know that more English is from Swedish. Swedish döma is to judge or doom -- another דין DeeYN. Swedish bestamma, to determine or judge, better reveals the original dental-nasal root of judgement and law in the word and concept of ESTIMATION. Despite the dental alter ego of the fricative-sounding צ Tsadi/TS, the IE addition of es- to words is likely the bigger factor in disguising the ST-M.